Hindu civilization had long before Greek civilization had not only achieved many advances in mathematics (which is often attributed to Greeks), but had applied this in marvels of architecture, astronomy, navigation, shipbuilding, etc.
The following are some of the contributions to mathematics by Hindus (some of the most revolutionary concepts in human history, such as the contribution of zero, place value system, integers, and negative numbers) and/or known to Hindus long before Western Civilization’s claim to having “invented” it (such as Algebra, Calculus, and Trigonometry):
- Invention of the Zero
- Invention of the Place Value System
- Invention of Integers
- Invention of Negative Numbers
- Invention of Algebra
- Invention of Trigonometry
- Invention of Quadratic Equations
- Invention of Infinite series
- Invention of Calculus
- Invention of Computation of value of Pi
- The “Pythagoras Theorem”
- The “Fibonacci Series”
The origins of these in Hindu Civilization is well documented and well sourced, with very little room for doubt. It is partly due to the British ruling India for over 200 years, that Indians succumbed to 200 years of “Western civilizational” education, and partly the fault that even 60 years after Independence, the Government of India did not make it a priority to go back to Hindu sources (many of which are superior to Western mathematics). Many of leading mathematicians not only agree, but find the methods and techniques by Hindus used to be fascinating, like stepping into another world.
Note: I will expanding on each of these in due course with references. In the meantime here’s a post by one Shobhit Jain:
1. India invented the Number system. Pingalacharya invented zero. in 200 BC.
2. Indians discovered the size, shape, rotation and gravity of earth about 1000 years before Kelvin,Galileo,Newton and Copper Nicus. Aryabhatta I was the first to explain spherical shape,size ,diameter,rotaion and correct speed of Earth in 499 AD.
3. Newtons law of Gravitational force is an ancient Indian discovery. In Siddhanta Siromani ( Bhuvanakosam 6 ) Bhaskaracharya II described about gravity of earth about 400 years before Sir Isaac Newton.
4. Bhaskaracharya II discovered Differential calculus.
5. Theory of Continued Fraction was discovered by Bhaskaracharya II.
6. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC.
7. Indians discovered Arithmetic and Geometric progression. Arithmetic progression is explained in Yajurveda.
8. Govindaswamin discovered Newton Gauss Interpolation formula about 1800 years before Newton.
9. Vateswaracharya discovered Newton Gauss Backward Interpolation formula about 1000 years before Newton.
10. Madhavacharya discovered Taylor series of Sine and Cosine function about 250 years before Taylor.
11. Madhavacharya discovered Newton Power series.
12. Madhavacharya discovered Gregory Leibnitz series for the Inverse Tangent about 280 years before Gregory.
13. Madhavacharya discovered Leibnitz power series for pi about 300 years before Leibnitz.
14. Parameswaracharya discovered Lhuilers formula about 400 years before Lhuiler.
15. Nilakanta discovered Newtons Infinite Geometric Progression convergent series.
16. Theorems relating the diameter,volume and circumference of circles discovered by Madhavacharya, Puthumana Somayaji, Aryabhatta, Bhaskaracharya.
17. The value of pi was first calculated by Aryabhatta I in 499 AD,ie more than 1350 years before Lindemann
18. Boudhayana discovered Pythagorus Theorem in 800BC. ie 300 years before Pythagorus.
19. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th Century.
20. While the Greeks were using only upto a maximum value 1000, Indians could go upto 18th power of 10 level during Vedic period.
21. Infinity was well known for ancient Indians. BhaskaracharyaII in Beejaganitha
(stanza-20) has given clear explanation with examples for infinity
22. Positive and Negative numbers and their calculations were explained first by Brahmagupta in his book Brahmasputa Siddhanta.
23. Sterling formula was discovered by Brahmagupta about 1000 years before Sterling.
24. Demoviers theorem of positive integral was discovered by Brahmagupta in 628 A.D, i.e around 1000 years before Demovier.
25. Puthumana Somayaji discovered Demoviers infinite series in 1140 AD,i.e more than 200 years before Demovier.
26. Maharshi Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted surgeries like cesareans, cataract, fractures and urinary stones. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India. He was the first person to perform plastic surgery.
27. When many cultures in the world were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization).
28. The worlds first University was established in Takshila in 700BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda (functioned from 500AD to 1300AD, when it was destroyed by Muslim invaders) had more than 10,000 students and over 200 professors.